Suggested Topics for Discussion

1. What is translation equivalence? Is every translation equally close semantically to its ST? How can different types of equivalence be singled out? In what way does one type of equivalence differ from the other?

2. What is the minimum semantic similarity between ST and TT? How can the first type of translation equivalence be defined? What is the purport of communication? Should the purport of communication be always preserved in translation?

3. How can the second type of equivalence be characterized? In what way does it differ from the first type? How can a situation be described in the text? Do the Suggested Topics for Discussion methods used to describe the situation in ST and TT remain the same in the second type of equivalence? What is situational equivalence?

4. What parts of the ST contents are retained in the third type of equivalence? How can the identity of the methods of describing the situation be demonstrated in such cases? What semantic variations can be observed in translations of this type?

5. What is the role of the meaning of the language units which make up the text? What is the fourth type of equivalence? In what way can the meaning of the ST syntactical structures be Suggested Topics for Discussion preserved in translation?

6. How can the fifth type of equivalence be defined? What are the main components of the word semantics? Is the whole meaning of the word actualized when the word is used in the text? Can words of different languages be identical in their meaning?

7. What levels of equivalence can be distinguished in translation? How do the equivalence levels mirror the essential features of speech units?

8. What level of equivalence can the translator reach in the translating process? Is it always necessary or possible to translate at the same level of equivalence? What factors does the choice depend on Suggested Topics for Discussion?

2. Comment on the these examples in terms of equivalence levels:

Power failure – неполадка в електромережі

I’m not on speaking terms with her – Я з нею не розмовляю

Newspaper office – Редакція газети

In the bare second – миттєво (в одну мить)

We have to answer discussion questions – Нам треба відповісти на питання, з яких проводиться дискусія.

Floor exercises (sports) – вільні вправи

Save me a seat at our table – Займи мені місце за нашим столом

But I almost blew it up – Я ледве було не зіпсував всю справу

In order to keep up her reputation – для того, щоб підтримати свою репутацію

Kristy practically jumped out of Suggested Topics for Discussion her skin – Кристі прямо із шкури лізла

I’ll fix some tea – Я влаштую зараз чай

When pressed by Kiki on the issue of the membership she agreed to join the club – коли Кікі надавила на неї з приводу членства, вона погодилась вступити до клубу

It was an unwritten law, I guess – Це був неписаний закон, я гадаю

Solving problems strengthens one’s character – вирішення проблем зміцнює характер людини

You can count on me – Можеш на мене розраховувати

Hope was torn by anger and sorrow – Гоуп розривалась між почуттями злості та співчуття

Alex is always trying to save his skin – Апекс завжди намагається спасти свою шкіру

(Examples of Suggested Topics for Discussion authentic structures have been borrowed from “Claudia and the Phantom phone Calls”, N.Y., 1986.)

3. Text analysis exercises in Komissarov V.N., Koralova A.L. …, p. 16-20

Text

CONSERVATION AND POLITICIANS

(1) Conservation and ecology are suddenly fashionable. (2) Politicians on both sides of the Atlantic are seizing on 'the environment' as a topical political issue. (3) It seems, however, that they are in danger of missing the point. (4) Protecting our environment cannot be achieved simply by some magic new technology; nor by tinkering with our present system. (5) Saving the environment raises profound questions about some of fundamental assumptions of any society. (6) It is doubtful Suggested Topics for Discussion whether some of the politicians now climbing on the conservation bandwagon fully realise this point, or whether they would be so enthusiastic if they did. (7) Serious environmental conservation means that governments will have to set pollution standards, despite cries from the offending industries that their foreign competitors will benefit. (8) Politicians will have to face up to some extremely awkward decisions: for instance, whether to ban cars without anti-pollution devices. (9) There will have to be international agreements in which short-term national interests have to be sacrificed. (10) It means, in short, a more responsible view of man's relationship to Suggested Topics for Discussion his habitat.

Text Analysis

(1) What is environment? What is environmental conservation (protection)? Is there anything in common between a conservative and a conservationist? What do they want to conserve?

(2) What is a politician? Is this word positive or derogatory? What continents lie on both sides of the Atlantic? How can one "seize on the environment"? Does that phrase imply disapprobation?

(3) What is the difference between "to be in danger" and "to be in danger of doing smth."? What is “to miss the point”? What is "the point" in this case?



(4) Why do people think of new technology as Suggested Topics for Discussion "magic"? What does "tinker" mean? What connotation has it got in the sentence?

(5) How can the expression "to raise a question" be used? Does it mean here the same as "to call in question" or "to raise doubts"? What is an assumption? How is it used in politics? in philosophy? in everyday life?

(6) What is "to climb (or to get) on the bandwagon"? Is it a deserving or an undeserving action? What is meant here by "conservation bandwagon"?

(7) What does the modal verb "to have to" imply? What are pollution standards? Does the word "cries" here mean "shouts", "protests" or "complaints Suggested Topics for Discussion"? Why are industries referred to as "offending"?

(8) What is "to face up to smth."? Does it imply a pleasant or an unpleasant experience? What is an "awkward decision" for a politician? What is an "anti-pollution device"? Why should cars be provided with such devices? Will cars with such devices be cheaper or more expensive to make?

(9) Why are national interests referred to here as "short-term"? In what way may they be sacrificed in protecting the environment?

(10) What is "habitat"? How can the words "a responsible view of man's relationship to his habitat" be paraphrased?

Problem Suggested Topics for Discussion-Solving Exercises

A. Levels of Equivalence

I. Compare the following translations with the respective sentences in the text. State at what level of equivalence each of them is rendered into Russian.

1. Кажется, однако, что им грозит опасность упустить суть дела (3). 2. Окружающую нас среду нельзя уберечь с помощью какой-то новой техники, способной творить чудеса ... (4). 3. Охрана окружающей среды поднимает серьезные вопросы относительно основополагающих принципов любого общества (5). 4, Сомнительно, чтобы некоторые из политических деятелей, спешащих примкнуть к движению за охрану окружающей среды, полностью осознавали этот факт... (6).

II. At what level of equivalence would you translate sentence (2)? or sentence (8)?

III. Which of the following translations Suggested Topics for Discussion of sentence (1) is made at a higher level of equivalence?

a) Все вдруг заговорили об экологии и охране окружающей среды.

b) Экология и охрана окружающей среды стали вдруг модными темами.

IV. Compare the following translations of sentence (7). Which of them would you prefer (if either)? Give your reasons.

a) Серьезное сохранение окружающей среды означает, что правительства должны будут установить нормы загрязнения...

b) Если серьезно заниматься охраной окружающей среды, то правительствам придется принять принудительные меры против ее загрязнения...

V. Raise the level of equivalence of the following translation of sentence (9):

Краткосрочные национальные интересы будут принесены в жертву будущим международным Suggested Topics for Discussion соглашениям.

VI. Translate sentence (10) at the 4th level of equivalence.

VII. What arguments can you find to prove that sentence (4) should not be translated at the 5th level of equivalence?

VIII. What makes a word-for-word translation of sentence (2) impossible?

IX. What errors, if any, do you see in the following translation of sentence (8)?

Политиканам придется столкнуться лицом к лицу с крайне неудобными решениями, например, запретом на автомобили, не снабженные специальными устройствами, предотвращающими загрязнение атмосферы.

X. Translate the text. State what level of equivalence is achieved in each sentence.

B. Other Translation Problems

XI. What Russian equivalents can be suggested to Suggested Topics for Discussion translate the term "environment" in this text?

XII. Which of the following Russian word should be used as an equivalent to the word "conservation": охрана, сохранение, защита, сбережение (окружающей среды)? Would you use one equivalent throughout TT or some variations?

XIII. How do you translate the term "conservationist"?

XIV. Which is the suitable equivalent here for "politicians": политики, политические деятели, политиканы? Why?

XV. What is the difference between the Russian substitutes for "the Atlantic": Атлантика, Атлантический океан?

XVI. Should the phrase "on both sides of the Atlantic" be rendered into Russian as по обеим сторонам Атлантики or as как Suggested Topics for Discussion в Европе, так и в Америке? Give your reasons.

XVII. What can be suggested as the Russian substitute for "topical" in sentence (2)?

ХУШ. Can the Russian ухватились за окружающую среду be used for "seizing the environment" in sentence (2) or would you prefer some other substitute? If so, why?

XIX. What would you choose for "the point" in sentence (3): суть дела, самое главное, существо проблемы or something else? And for the same word in sentence (6)?

XX. Would you prefer магическая техника (технология) for "magic technology" or техника, способная творить чудеса? Or can you think of some better Russian wording?

XXI. Suggest Suggested Topics for Discussion a Russian equivalent to the word "tinkering" in sentence (4).

XXII. Make your choice between the following Russian equivalents to the word "assumptions" in sentence (5): предположения, принципы, установки. Or can you suggest something else?

ХХП1. Can the figurative expression "to climb on the bandwagon" in sentence (6) be translated by some Russian idiom? If not, why?

XXTV. Suggest some translation variants for the following phrase: "He is very enthusiastic about your plan".

XXV. What is the accepted Russian equivalent to the term "pollution standards"? How should it be translated in sentence (7)?

XXVI. Which of the following Russian equivalents would you use Suggested Topics for Discussion to translate the words "offending industries" in sentence (7)? нарушающие отрасли промышленности; виновные отрасли

промышленности; отрасли, виновные в загрязнении среды; предприниматели, виновные в загрязнении среды

XXVII. What is the difference between the Russian трудное решение, неприятное решение, невыгодное решение? Cf. the English "awkward decisions" in sentence (8).

XXVIII. Would you translate "to face up to" in sentence (8) as столкнуться лицом к лицу с? If not, why?

XXIX. While translating sentence (9) would you use a blue-print substitute краткосрочные национальные интересы or would you prefer насущные национальные интересы, национальные интересы сегодняшнего дня or something else? Justify your preference.

XXX. Your dictionary gives Suggested Topics for Discussion two Russian translations of the word "habitat": 1. родина, место распространения (растения, животного); 2. естественная среда. Does either of them fit your translation of sentence (10)?


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